O zlu nedelovanja

Posted: 10/11/2011 in Duhovnost, Knjige, Psihologija
Oznake: , , ,

The only thing necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing.

(Edmund Burke)

Our usual take on evil focuses on the violent, destructive actions of perpetrators, but the failure to act can be a form of evil, when helping, dissent, disobedience, or whistle-blowing are required. One of the most critical, least acknowledged contributors of evil goes beyond the protagonists of harm to the silent chorus who look but do not see, who hear but do not listen.

(Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect)

For more than half an hour, 38 respectable, law abiding citizens in Queens [New York] watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens. Twice the sound of their voices and the sudden glow of their bedroom lights interrupted him and frightened him off. Each time he returned, sought her out and stabbed her again. Not one person telephoned the police during the assault; one witness called the police after the woman was dead.
(The New York Times)

[W]e must learn that passively to accept an unjust system is to cooperate with that system, and thereby to become a participant in its evil.

(Martin Luther King Jr.)

An eighteen-year-old secretary had been beaten, choked, stripped and rapped in her office. When she finally broke away from her assailant, naked and bleeding, she ran downstairs to the doorway screaming “Help me! Help me! He raped me!” A crowd of about forty persons gathered on the busy street and watched as the rapist dragged her back upstairs to continue his abuse. No one came to her aid! Only the chance arrival of passing police prevented her further abuse and possible murder.
(Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect)

Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted, the indifference of those who should have known better, the silence of the voice of justice when it mattered most, that has made it possible for evil to triumph.

(Haile Selassie)

Before we get into the details of this research, I must warn you of a bias you likely possess that might shield you from drawing the right conclusions from all you are about to read. Most of us construct self-enhancing, self-serving, egocentric biases that make us feel special – never ordinary, and certainly “above average”. Such cognitive biases serve a valuable function in boosting our self-esteem and protecting it against life’s hard knocks. They enable us to explain away failures, take credit for our successes, and disown responsiblity for bad decisions, perceiving our subjective world through rainbow prisms. (…) Yet these biases can be maladaptive as well by blinding us to our similarity to others and distancing us from the reality that people just like us behave badly in certain toxic situations. Such biases also mean that we don’t take basic precautions to avoid the undesired consequences of our behaviour, assuming it won’t happen to us. (…) That means when you read about the Stanford Prison Experiment or the many studies [in this book], you might well conclude that you would not do what the majority has done, that you would, of course, be the exception to the rule. That statistically unreasonable belief (since most of us share it) makes you even more vulnerable to situational forces precisely because you underestimate their power as you overestimate yours.

(Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect)

[S]amo če si lahko predstavljamo sami sebe kot povzročitelja kakršnegakoli možnega zločina in se zavemo, da ga imamo za bregom, smo lahko precej gotovi, da smo odvrgli krinko in da smo na poti, da se zavemo, kdo smo.

(prirejen citat Goetheja v Erich Fromm, Umetnost življenja)

A moja blaznost mi je bila le v zdravje, umiral sem, da bi oživel; vedel sem, kaj je bilo hudega na meni, a nisem vedel, kaj bo v kratkem dobrega iz mene.

(sv. Avguštin, Izpovedi)

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Komentarji
  1. Om Nom Nom pravi:

    O, kul, Zimbardo, tole mora prit na vrsto kmalu.

    Podobno, Martha Stout – The Sociopath Next Door

    To keep the blinders off our life-enhancing seventh sense, as with most improvements in the human condition, we must start with our children. A part of healthy conscience is being able to confront consciencelessness. When you teach your daughter, explicitly or by passive rejection, that she must ignore her outrage, that she must be kind and accepting to the point of not defending herself or other people, that she must not rock the boat for any reason, you are not strengthening her prosocial sense; you are damaging it—and the first person she will stop protecting is herself. Cox, Stabb, and Bruckner argue emphatically that “the requirement to suppress outrage at the other robs the woman of an opportunity to develop this kind of autonomy.” Instead, as Lyn Mikel Brown has said, we need to suggest “the possibility, even under the most oppressive conditions, for creative refusal and resistance.”

    O uni kognitivni pristranskosti pa glihkar berem pri Danielu Gilbertu – Stumbling on Happiness. Še kar noro, ko ti nekdo pokaže s prstom in rečeš “faaaaak”…

    • sebahudin pravi:

      Jup, ti toplo priporočam. Izjemno berljivo in informativno. 😉

      S tem, kar piše Stoutova, pa se strinjam le deloma. Po mojem ne razmejuje pojmov dovolj dobro in meče raznovrstne kategorije v isti koš. Ni razloga, da nekdo ne bi bil “pijazen in sprejemajoč”, pa hkrati tudi “uporniški”, ko je to treba – nasprotno, mislim, da je to osnova vsakega upravičenega in tehtnega uporništva. Vem, kaj je avtorica želela povedati, a je to zelo slabo ubesedila – to je tako kot tiste terapije, v katerih se učiš “sproščati jezo”, za katere pa se izkaže, da so v bistvu zelo neproduktivne in neuspešne (gl. npr. Fromma za natančnejšo kritiko). To je skorajda tako, kot če bi odvisnežu od polnosti rekel, naj več masturbira – ja, po vsakem orgazmu bi začutil neko olajšanje, ampak rešil ni ničesar. Namesto “pohlevnih otrok” naj torej vzgajamo “razborite otroke”? Nikakor. Otroke je po mojem mnenju treba učiti predvsem to, da se spoznavajo in izražajo sami sebe – če bodo tega RES zmožni, bodo zmožni tudi v socialnih situacijah primerneje reagirati (tj. reagirati tako, da to ne bo šlo “raz” njihove vrednote). In to NE pomeni, da ne izražaš svojih čustev in občutkov (daleč od tega), temveč le da ne dovoliš, da bi postal njihov suženj in bi te premetavali kot barko v razburkanem morju. Pomembno je, da ti ostane na voljo polje svobode, da se odločiš, KAKO boš svoja čustva izrazil.

      Mmg, od kod fascinacija nad tovrstno tematiko?

  2. Om Nom Nom pravi:

    Mogoče sem ti prilepila premalo in ni videt konteksta – Stoutova govori o tem, da se upreš bullyjem, skratka “to confront consciencelessness” (začne namreč s prigodo na šolskem avtobusu, kjer so vsi otroci samo gledali, kako je neka pokveka nadlegovala drugega otroka, neka drobna deklica pa se je dvignila in rekla: “Nehaj, to je res zlobno.”).

    Consciencelessness ona imenuje ljudi brez vesti, torej psihopate.

    Na tvoje zadnje vprašanje pa ne znam odgovoriti. Možgani so me fascinirali že od Velike knjige o možganih dalje (srednja šola?), potem pa dolgo časa nisem niti iskala niti mi ni pod roke prišlo nič takega, pa tudi moja izobraževalna pot je bila v marsičem faljena in je šla mimo tega. Za Zimbarda sem po moje skoraj zihr slišala na faksu; bi rekla, da mimo Miltonovega eksperimenta tudi nismo šli – mislim celo, da se še spomnim, kako ga je Miheljak razlagal pri psihologiji in je ena reva ravno takrat doživela grand mal… Ampak kaj pa vem, ne bi si izmišljevala (kot bi moji možgani radi :)): pojma nimam, zakaj se toliko časa nisem zbudila iz te omrtvičenosti… Če bi zdaj bila ob koncu srednje šole (in bi vedela, kar vem zdaj), na FDV niti pomislila ne bi.

    No, vse to se je spremenilo s kindlom – kar naenkrat so vse te stvari blizu, dosegljive in to takoj. No, Gilberta sem celo na papirju kupila že pred kindlom :). Istočasno sem odkrila še avdio knjige, ki so zame, ki imam do službe pol ure vožnje, božja mana! Ja, vem, eden od razlogov, zakaj šele zdaj, je to, da sem še nedolgo nazaj imela predsodek do branja v angleščini – morda sem nekoč poskusila brat kaj takšnega, kot je Shakespeare, pa sem na podlagi tega ugotovila, da je to zame “pretežko” in da tega ne počnem.

    • sebahudin pravi:

      In kaj bi šla študirat zdaj, če bi lahko še enkrat izbirala? Psihologijo? Ali medicino (pa potem specializacija iz psihiatrije in/ali nevrologije)? SiNAPSo (=slovensko društvo za kognitivno nevroznanost: http://www.sinapsa.org/naslovnica/) poznaš? Verjetno jo, ampak če je slučajno ne, ti toplo priporočam obisk Tedna možganov, ki ga organizirajo vsako leto. Mmg. – glede na to, da omenjaš Milgrama – njegovo Poslušnost avtoriteti si brala?

      Zanimivo je namreč to, da se kognitivni in socialni psihologi ne gledajo vedno najlepše (kar še posebej drži za Slovenijo), deloma tudi zato, ker so osnovne paradigme, iz katerih izhajajo, precej različne. Kot bi rekel Zimbardo: “kognitivci” so “klasiki” v smislu, da vedenje, osebnost in duševnost razumejo zelo “dispozicijsko”, medtem ko “socialci” te pojave razumejo veliko bolj “situacijsko” (to je mdr. vprašanje, ki tudi mene zelo zanima v zadnjem času – socialna konstrukcija duševnosti in osebnosti – njen delež, narava itd.).

      Hehe, to glede branja v angleščini pa sem slišal že večkrat (in imel opraviti s pupo, ki se je iz istih razlogov otepala ang. lit., čeprav je bila kar vešča angleščine, gotovo dovolj, da bi lahko brala relevantno literaturo). Treba je preprosto – začeti. In ja, zelo pomaga, če človek NE začne s Shakespearjem. 🙂 Podobno “zavoro” imam jaz, ko pride do branja v nemščini, čeprav zadnje čase delam na prebijanju tega (fiktivnega) zidu. Človeka v bistvu kar preseneti, kako hitro “pade not”, samo vztrajati je treba.

  3. Om Nom Nom pravi:

    Če bi zdaj izbirala, bi verjetno pogoltnila medicino. 🙂 Zanimala bi me bolj v raziskovalnem smislu, kurativa me nekak ne rajca 🙂

    Ah, Milgram – preveden v slovenščino? Pa noro, no. Ne, nisem brala, bom pa. Poznam. Grozljivo – sploh v luči tega, kar si prilepil tudi z Zimbardovim citatom o kognitivnem predsodku o sebi. Še bolj grozljivo se mi zdi spoznanje, da so udeleženci z višjo izobrazbo izkazali MANJ spoštovanja do avtoritete, danes pa – se mi zdi – vsa ta inflacija “izobraženosti” čisto nič ne pomaga k boljšemu premisleku o stvareh, ki jih počnemo… ker jih počnejo vsi… in ker so tako rekli na televiziji…

    Ej, tole vprašanje o socialni,… better yet kulturni konstukciji psihopatologije omenja tudi Stoutova. V zahodnih družbah ocenjuje, da je 4% sociopatov, pa da sociopatsko osebnost v razmerju 1:1 konsturirata kongenitalna “napaka” in vpliv okolja. No… guess what… Though sociopathy seems to be universal and timeless, there is credible evidence that some cultures contain fewer sociopaths than do other cultures. Intriguingly, sociopathy would appear to be relatively rare in certain East Asian countries, notably Japan and China. Studies conducted in both rural and urban areas of Taiwan have found a remarkably low prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, ranging from 0.03 percent to 0.14 percent, which is not none but is impressively less than the Western world’s approximate average of 4 percent, which translates to one in twenty-five people. And disturbingly, the prevalence of sociopathy in the United States seems to be increasing. The 1991 Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, reported that in the fifteen years preceding the study, the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder had nearly doubled among the young in America. It would be difficult, closing in on impossible, to explain such a dramatically rapid shift in terms of genetics or neurobiology. Apparently, cultural influences play a very important role in the development (or not) of sociopathy in any given population.

    Sinapso poznam. Nimajo RSS-ja. Še vedno. Damn. :/

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