Svet borilnih veščin: kung fu in sanshou/sanda

Posted: 19/10/2011 in Vadba
Oznake: , , , ,

Dragi bralci, preljube bralke,

že dalj časa sem razmišljal, da bi v svoji kibernetični kamri nekaj prostora odmeril še eni od mojih ljubezni, namreč borilnim veščinam. In za začetek se mi zdi prikladno, da se najpoprej sploh seznanimo z različnimi oblikami borilnih veščin: veliko ljudi je namreč že slišalo za karate, judo, ju-jitsu, kung fu, kikboks, taekwondo itd., vendar opažam, da si razen tistih, ki so kdaj katero od teh veščin trenirali, večina le medlo predstavlja, za kaj pravzaprav gre (tj. kaj so specifične lastnosti neke veščine, v čem se razlikuje od ostalih itd.). Pri tem si bom nekoliko pomagal tudi z dvema meni (svojčas) zelo ljubima dokumentarnima serijama: Fight Quest (Discovery Channel) in Human Weapon (History Channel). Obe seriji sta zasnovani tako, da voditelja, ki se tudi sama ukvarjata z borilnimi veščinami – v prvi (in meni precej ljubši) seriji sta to Jimmy Smith in Doug Anderson, v drugi pa Bill Duff in Jason Chambers (zanimivo je tudi to, da je v obeh serijah eden od voditeljev bolj visokorasle in stasite postave, drugi pa drobnejši in agilnejši; k čemur verjetno botruje dejstvo, da je pri zasnovi serije Discovery kopiral od Historyja :)) – potujeta po svetu in spoznavata različne oblike borilnih veščin. Čeprav bi seveda obema nanizankama lahko očitali marsikatero nedoslednost, pa sta po mojem mnenju vendarle zabaven, zanimiv in poučen uvod v borbeni svet (plus, sčasoma ti voditelja – ko ju spremljaš skozi ves njun direndaj – prav prirasteta k srcu).

No, pa začnimo tam, kjer sem vsaj malo doma – pri kung-fuju in sanshouju oziroma sandi:

Kung fu or gongfu or gung fu (功夫, Pinyin: gōngfu) is a Chinese term often used in the West to refer to Chinese martial arts. Its original meaning is somewhat different, referring to one’s expertise in any skill achieved through hard work and practice, not necessarily martial. The Chinese literal equivalent of “Chinese martial art” would be 中國武術 zhōngguó wǔshù.


Beseda kung fu se je torej najprej navezovala na odličnost v katerikoli veščini, ne nujno na borilne veščine:

In its original meaning, kung fu can refer to any skill. Gōngfu (功夫) is a compound of two words, combining 功 (gōng) meaning “achievement” or “merit”, and 夫 (fū) which translates into “man”, so that a literal rendering would be “human achievement”. Its connotation is that of an accomplishment arrived at by great effort. (…) Originally, to practice kung fu did not just mean to practice Chinese martial arts. Instead, it referred to the process of one’s training – the strengthening of the body and the mind, the learning and the perfection of one’s skills – rather than to what was being trained. It refers to excellence achieved through long practice in any endeavor. You can say that a person’s kung fu is good in cooking, or that someone has kung fu in calligraphy; saying that a person possesses kung fu in an area implies skill in that area, which they have worked hard to develop. Someone with “bad kung fu” simply has not put enough time and effort into training, or seems to lack the motivation to do so. (vir)

Okoli 20. st. pa se je pomen besede kung fu zožil, in sicer je postal sinonim za kitajske borilne veščine:

Chinese martial arts, also referred to by the Mandarin Chinese term wushu and popularly as kung fu (gōngfu), are often classified according to common traits, identified as “families”, “sects” or “schools” of martial arts. Examples of such traits include physical exercises involving animal mimicry, or training methods inspired by Chinese philosophies, religions and legends. Styles which focus on qi manipulation are labeled as internal , while others concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness and are labeled external. Geographical association, as in northern and southern, is another popular method of categorization. (vir)

Zgodovinsko-mitične  korenine kitajskih borilnih veščin segajo daleč v preteklost in so mdr. tudi tesno povezane z znanim zen (chan) budističnim templjem Shaolin:

The genesis of Chinese martial arts has been attributed to the need for self-defense, hunting techniques and military training in ancient China. Hand-to-hand combat and weapons practice were important in training ancient Chinese soldiers.While it is clear that various forms of martial arts have been practiced in China since antiquity, very little detail on specifics can be recovered for times predating the 16th century.

According to legend, Chinese martial arts originated during the semi-mythical Xia Dynastymore than 4,000 years ago (!). It is said the Yellow Emperor Huangdi (legendary date of ascension 2698 BCE) introduced the earliest fighting systems to China. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China’s leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine, astrology and the martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You who was credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese Wrestling.

The Shaolin style of wushu is regarded as amongst the first institutionalized Chinese martial arts. The oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stele from 728 CE that attests to two occasions: a defense of the Shaolin Monastery from bandits around 610 CE, and their subsequent role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hulao in 621 CE. From the 8th to the 15th centuries, there are no extant documents that provide evidence of Shaolin participation in combat. Between the 16th and 17th centuries there are at least forty sources which provide evidence that not only did the monks of Shaolin practice martial arts, but martial practice had become such an integral element of Shaolin monastic life that the monks felt the need to justify it by creating new Buddhist lore, the earliest appearance of the frequently cited legend concerns Bodhidharma’s supposed foundation of Shaolin Kung Fu dates to this period. (vir)

Za kitajske borine veščine je značilna izjemna raznolikost stilov:

China has a long history of martial traditions that includes hundreds of different styles. Over the past two thousand years many distinctive styles have been developed, each with its own set of techniques and ideas. There are also common themes to the different styles, which are often classified by “families”,  “sects” or “schools”. There are styles that mimic movements from animals and others that gather inspiration from various Chinese philosophies, myths and legends. (vir)

Vadba kitajskih borilnih veščin običajno zajema več elementov: osnove, drže (stave), forme, aplikacijo, orožja, meditacijo.

  • Basics: The Basics are a vital part of any martial training, as a student cannot progress to the more advanced stages without them; Basics are usually made up of rudimentary techniques, conditioning exercises, including stances. Basic training may involve simple movements that are performed repeatedly; other examples of basic training are stretching, meditation, striking, throwing, or jumping. Without strong and flexible muscles, management of Qi or breath, and proper body mechanics, it is impossible for a student to progress in the Chinese martial arts.
  • StancesStances are structural postures employed in Chinese martial arts training. They represent the foundation and the form of a fighter’s base. Each style has different names and variations for each stance. Stances may be differentiated by foot position, weight distribution, body alignment, etc. Stance training can be practiced statically, the goal of which is to maintain the structure of the stance through a set time period, or dynamically, in which case a series of movements is performed repeatedly. The horse-riding stance (qí mǎ bù/mǎ bù) and the bow stance are examples of stances found in many styles of Chinese martial arts. [fakin’ mabu! :D]
  • Forms: Forms or taolu in Chinese are series of predetermined movements combined so they can be practiced as one linear set of movements. Forms were originally intended to preserve the lineage of a particular style branch, and were often taught to advanced students who were selected to preserve the art’s lineage. Forms were designed to contain both literal, representative and exercise-oriented forms of applicable techniques which would be extracted, tested and trained by students through sparring sessions. Today, many consider forms to be one of the most important practices in Chinese martial arts. Traditionally, they played a smaller role in training combat application, and were eclipsed by sparring, drilling and conditioning. Forms gradually build up a practitioner’s flexibility, internal and external strength, speed and stamina, and teach balance and coordination. Forms are meant to be both practical, usable, and applicable as well as promoting flow, meditation, flexibility, balance and coordination. Teachers are often heard to say “train your form as if you were sparring and spar as if it were a form.” There are two general types of forms in Chinese martial arts. Most common are “solo forms” which are performed by a single student. There are also “sparring” forms, which are choreographed fighting sets performed by two or more people. Sparring forms were designed both to acquaint beginning fighters with basic measures and concepts of combat, and to serve as performance pieces for the school. Sparring forms which utilize weapons are especially useful for teaching students the extension, range and technique required to manage a weapon.
  • Weapons: Most Chinese styles also make use of training in the broad arsenal of Chinese weapons for conditioning the body as well as coordination and strategy drills. Weapons training are generally carried out after the student is proficient in the basics, forms and applications training. The basic theory for weapons training is to consider the weapon as an extension of the body. It has the same requirements for footwork and body coordination as the basics.
  • Application: Application refers to the practical use of combative techniques. Chinese martial arts techniques are ideally based on efficiency and effectiveness. Application includes non-compliant drills, such as Pushing Hands in many internal martial arts, and sparring, which occurs within a variety of contact levels and rule sets. When and how applications are taught varies from style to style. Today, many styles begin to teach new students by focusing on exercises in which each student knows a prescribed range of combat and technique to be drilled; these drills are often semi-compliant, meaning one student does not offer active resistance to a technique in order to allow its demonstrative, clean execution. In more resisting drills, fewer rules are applied and students practice how to react and respond. ‘Sparring’ refers to the most important aspect of application training, which simulates a combat situation while including rules and regulations in order to reduce the chance of serious injury to the students.
  • Meditation: In many Chinese martial arts, meditation is considered to be an important component of basic training. Meditation can be used to develop focus, mental clarity and can act as a basis for qigong training. (vir)

Sanshou/Sanda oz. “prosta roka”/”prosta borba” pa je borbena “različica” tradicionalnih kitajskih borilnih veščin:

Sanshou (sǎnshǒu; literally “free hand”) or Sanda (sǎndǎ; literally “free fighting”) or an “unsanctioned fight” is a Chinese hand-to-hand self-defense system and combat sport. Sanshou is a martial art which was originally developed by the Chinese military based upon the intense study and practices of traditional Kung Fu and modern combat fighting techniques; it combines full-contact kickboxing, which include punches and kicks, wrestling, takedowns, throws, sweeps, kick catches, and in some competitions, even elbow and knee strikes.

Not seen as a style itself, rather it is considered as just one of the components of Chinese martial arts training and is often taught alongside with taolu (forms) training. However, as part of the development of sport wushu by the Chinese government, a standard curriculum for sanshou was developed. It is to this standard curriculum that the term “Sanshou” is usually applied.

This curriculum was developed with reference to traditional Chinese martial arts. This general Sanshou curriculum varies in its different forms, as the Chinese government developed a version for civilians for self-defense and as a sport. (vir)

Sedaj pa si to, kar smo obdelali v teoriji, poglejmo še v praksi. Doug in Jimmy iz Fight Questa se odpravita na Kitajsko, kjer se podrobneje seznanita s kung fujem, in sicer v tako v tradicionalni (Jimmy) kot v sodobnejši (Doug) različici:

1. Fight Quest – Kung Fu (pt. 1)

2. Fight Quest – Kung Fu (pt. 2)

3. Fight Quest – Kung Fu (pt 3)

4. Fight Quest – Kung Fu (pt. 4)

5. Fight Quest – Kung Fu (pt. 5)

Če vas zanima trening tradicionalnega kung fuja in/ali sanshouja/sande, ga lahko pri nas pod blago-strogo taktirko Milana Kapetana (shifuja Shi Hengdaua) trenirate v Slovenskem shaolinskem templju. V Templju se lahko seznanite tako s tradicionalnimi

…kot tudi bolj borbenimi tehnikami:

Povrh tega lahko povem, da je od vseh učiteljev/mentorjev, ki sem jih doslej srečal na svoji vadbeni poti (in verjemite, bilo jih je kar nekaj – in to nemalo zelo dobrih!),  Milan Kapetan v mojem srcu še vedno zapisan kot nekaj posebnega: človek, do katerega še zdaj gojim neizmerno globoko spoštovanje za vse, kar mi je dal v enem posebnem (prelomnem) obdobju mojega življenja. Pa da ne boste mislili, da je to neka motivirana reklama za Tempelj – kungfuja ne treniram že več kot slabo leto, čeprav upam – oz. sem prepričan -, da se bodo najine življenjske poti spet kdaj srečale.

Dragi bralci, preljube bralke,

želim vam vse dobro in lepo ter da bi gojili “kung fu” pristop k vsem vidikom svojega življenja!

Amituofo,

S.

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Komentarji
  1. Meglar pravi:

    “To ni nč! Drž!!!” Ja, tudi pri meni si je zaslužil prav posebno spoštovanje, čeprav sem samo en teden treniral z njim na taboru. Odprl je eno novo dimnezijo zmožnosti v meni, ki je prej še ni blo oz. ni bila tako izrazita. Še zdaj, ko kdaj “zagusti” kje, si v glavi samo prikličem tisti “Drž!” in že se šiba dalje, brez popuščanja! Ob priliki pa spet na en njegov tabor… 🙂

    Amituofo

    • sebahudin pravi:

      Istina=Resnica. To leto sva prešpricala, drugo leto – če bo zdravje služilo – pa nujno spet! “Drž, drž! Mabu niži! To ni nč, drž!” 🙂 Pa ne pozabimo njegov famozni “ninja” tek… 😉

  2. Meglar pravi:

    On se sploh ne dotika tal, ampak lebdi med tekom 😀 tale posnetek me nekak spominja na njegov tek http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws6AAhTw7RA&feature=player_embedded

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