Dejstva ali miti o športni prehrani?

Posted: 05/10/2011 in Prehrana
Oznake: ,

Dragi bralci, preljube bralke,

današnja tema bodo občeveljavne smernice v prehrani športnika. Vsi, ki se ukvarjamo s športom, jih poznamo in se jih – bolj ali manj – držimo: jej 6 manjših obrokov na dan, obvezno zajtrkuj, časovni razmik med dvema obrokoma naj ne bo daljši od 3-4 ure (razen ko spiš), post je – poleg nasičenih maščob in/ali ogljikovih hidratov – tvoj največji sovražnik itd. Zanimivo je, da ljudje, ki se podajo na vadbeno pot, te smernice velikokrat preprosto sprejmejo in jih nekritično vključijo v svoj vsakdan: bodisi jih slišijo od nekoga v telovadnici, ki ima več kilometrine kot oni, in mu zaupajo, ali jih poberejo na kakem spletnem forumu/blogu (ehm…) ipd., in ker je videti, da je oseba, ki jim je posredovala informacije, v svojem športu precej uspešna, jih tudi oni sprejmejo za svoje. Pri tem pa se običajno ne vprašajo, v kolikšni meri to, kar so slišali, res drži, in kako je do posredovanih informacij prišla oseba, ki jim jih je posredovala. Nemalokrat se izkaže, da je namreč njihov vir informacij taiste podatke slišal od neke osebe, ki ji je pač zaupal, ta pa jih je slišal od neke druge osebe itd. – in to je to. Včasih se omenjajo kakšne študije (o vprašljivi primernosti slednjih pri oceni neke prehrambene smernice sem pisal tukaj), ampak načeloma gre za to – ustno izročilo + (kasneje) rezultati (pri tem pa se ne ve, ali so rezultati posledica tega specifičnega načina prehranjevanja ali spremembe prehranjevanja nasploh).

Preden nadaljujem, bi rad zelo jasno povedal, da ne trdim, da so vse te smernice napačne: tisti, ki me poznate, veste, da se marsikatere držim tudi sam. Gre bolj za naš odnos do teh smernic: kako dogmatično se jih držimo, v kolikšni meri smo pripravljeni eksperimentirati z njimi ipd. Idejo o objavi pričujočega prispevka sem dobil po včerajšnji razpravi z zrezanim kameradom in keto-mojstrom-ki-to-ni (interna fora, forget it :)) Gecojem o povadbenem šejku. Redni bralci/bralke moje kamre veste, da si običajno navsezgodaj naredim miks, ki ga imam za jutranji in povadbeni obrok (podobno kot stric Geoff). V tem miksu so prisotne beljakovine (običajno sirot(k)a in/ali skuta), ogljikovih hidrati (običajno sadje) in maščobe (mleto laneno seme, oreški). Ko sem včeraj svoj napitek dal v pokušino Gecoju in mu povedal, kakšne so njegove sestavine, ga je presenetilo, kako to, da dodajam k povadbenemu šejku tudi maščobe. Takoj sem vedel na kaj meri: v vadbeni skupnosti velja “pravilo”, da je po treningu najbolje zaužiti samo mešanico preprostih ogljikovih hidratov in beljakovin (brez maščob!), saj naj bi to optimiziralo rast in regeneracijo mišičevja (vse dodane maščobe naj bi le upočasnile absorbcijo beljakovin in ogljikovih hidratov), s čimer naj bi zapravili “pol- do enourno okno priložnosti” za optimalno regeneracijo itd., ki se odpre nemudoma po vadbi (gl. tudi 9. mit spodaj). Tudi sam sem se nekoč tega “pravila” držal kot pijan plota: zdelo se mi je smiselno in da ljudje, ki ga zagovarjajo, vedo, o čem govorijo. No, potem pa sem si nekoč drznil poskusiti :), kaj se zgodi, če so v povadbenem šejku prisotne tudi maščobe (OMG, can you imagine?! the horror! the blasphemy!). In kaj se je zgodilo? Nič posebnega. 🙂 To prakso sem začel redno izvajati pred cca letom in pol – in ne morem reči, da bi ta sprememba količkaj vplivala name. Nisem je čutil ne pri regeneraciji (nasprotno, zdi se mi, da se je ta celo izboljšala), športnih rezultatih, izgledu (v bistvu se je procent maščobe v tem času maščobe znižal, pa tudi nekoliko mišičnine sem pridelal) itd.

In ravno za to gre:  za pripravljenost eksperimentirati, kritično ocenjevati, misliti – kot bi rekli Angleži – “outside the box”. Pri tem pa ne zagovarjam nek “nutricionistični anarhizem” 🙂 – določena “pravila” so se v skupnosti uveljavila zato, ker (verjetno) deležijo na resnici. Katere od teh smernic so dejansko resnične in v kolikšni meri so resnične tudi za vas, je pa drugo vprašanje. In tukaj pride na vrsto osebna izkušnja. Pet do šest obrokov dnevno? Kaj pa če bi isto količino hrane zaužili v treh obrokih ali celo enem samem nekajurnem obroku (kot predlaga bojevniška dieta)? Kaj bi se zgodilo? Kako veste? Ste poskusili? Sam npr. zadnje čase eksperimentiram s sporadičnim postom (2-3x tedensko) in sem zaenkrat z rezultati zelo zadovoljen: še posebej sem vesel, da se je ta praksa v moje življenje prikradla na pol spontano, precej naravno. In – kljub vsem gorečim nasprotnikom – lahko rečem, da mi ustreza – in to zelo.

V luči napisanega vas torej napotujem na članek Thaye Kareesona 20 Nutritions Myths I Used To Believe Were True. Še enkrat, ne gre za to, da bi se strinjal z vsem, kar piše članku – rad bi vas predvsem spodbudil h kritičnemu razmisleku in vas morda rahlo zbezal iz vaše cone udobjaKarel Čapek je nekoč zapisal: “Ena izmed največjih nesreč civilizacije je učen bedak”. Enako velja za vadbeni svet: vse prevečkrat se zgodi, da t.i. “vaditelji”, “strokovnjaki za prehrano” itd. s številnimi “učenimi” izrazi ala “pronacija/supinacija”, “beta-hidroksimetilbutarat” itd. le prikrivajo lastne predsodke, nevednost in dogmatizem. Koliko posmeha sem videl med člani vadbene skupnosti glede “nerazsvetljene raje”, ki “slepo” sledi groznim prehrambenim navadam svojih staršev in tradicije, medtem ko so sami ujeli v enak kalup dogmatizma, ki so ga pobrali od svojih novih “fitnes staršev” in “nutricionistične tradicije”. Zato: don’t be that guy/girl. 😉

Nekaj (meni osebno) najbolj provokativnih “mitov” iz omenjenega članka:

Myth 1: Alcohol makes you fat

This one is the most convenient myth that has been busted (at least for me), so I want to spend a little more time explaining this one.

On a regular basis, your body uses carbs in your blood stream for energy. Once you run out, your body will start oxidizing the fat cells for energy (ketogenic process – good!). At which point, if you were to consume carbs or protein, you will pause fat cells oxidization. The carbs you consume will go towards a glycogen store and once that store is full, any extra carbs will be turned into fat.

Once you consume alcohol (ethanol), it will get immediate priority over all other substrates. This means that all fat, carb, and protein oxidation will stop. You body will work to try to oxidize the alcohol first for energy. At this state, any dietary fats that get consumed will easily get converted to fat cells and any carbs you consume over your glycogen store will get converted to fat. What this also means is that if your macronutrient for your drinking day is almost purely protein and you keep pounding shots of tequila (not chugging beer or cocktails), then you will not gain that much fat at all.

Note: Beer has lots of carbs in addition to alcohol, but shots have almost zero carbs (0.5g-1g of carbs per shot).

Myth 3: Eat smaller meals to keep your metabolism up

I used to eat small meals throughout the day. The only thing that ever helped me with was to learn how to portion control. I didn’t lose any extra weight by splitting up my 3 big meals into 6 small ones throughout the day.“More importantly, studies using whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labelled water to assess total 24h energy expenditure find no difference between nibbling and gorging.”

source: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=879792

Myth 4: Eat more meals to keep you full all the time

More like, this will make me starve all the time. I’ve learned that a good amount of protein & fat keeps me full and satiated longer than back when I used to eat 6 small meals per day.

“Collectively, these data suggest that higher protein intake promotes satiety and challenge the concept that increasing the number of eating occasions enhances satiety in overweight and obese men.”

source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20339363

Myth 5: If you don’t eat constantly, your blood sugar level will drop causing you to not be able to think straight.

Personally I skip breakfast everyday and I am a full time software engineer. I notice no mental drawbacks in the morning.

“Cognitive performance, activity, sleep, and mood are not adversely affected in healthy humans by 2 d of calorie-deprivation when the subjects and investigators are unaware of the calorie content of the treatments.”

source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779282

Myth 7: Skipping breakfast will plummet your metabolism and make you fat.

I’m not saying that eating breakfast is bad for you. I’m just saying that it won’t help you lose weight. I skip breakfast everyday intentionally since it has helped me get lean. Here’s a study that shows that short-term fasting doesn’t lower your metabolism, but instead increases it.

Myth 8: Fasting will destroy your metabolism and make you lose muscle.

For long term fasting, this is true. But there has been no reliable study to prove this for short term fasting (i.e. 12-24 hours). Not to say that 24 hours is the cut-off time. This study found that the negative effects of fasting starts kicking in at about 60 hours (so you got plenty of buffer room).

Myth 9: After your workout, you have only one hour to replenish your body with fast nutrients.

This is a popular myth that needs to be debunked. According to this study by Tipton and colleagues, our body still responds to good nutrition even at 24 hours after your workout. Eat enough protein throughout the day.

Myth 16: Low/no carb diets are unhealthy.

“Even short-term consumption of a paleolithic type diet improves BP and glucose tolerance, decreases insulin secretion, increases insulin sensitivity and improves lipid profiles without weight loss in healthy sedentary humans.”

source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19209185

Myth 17: Carbs are bad for you.

Carbs have been getting a bad rap lately, but carbs do have a place in helping you get in shape. Your body needs carbs for fast energy. Try lifting heavy weights or competing in any sports without eating carbs on that day. You will get destroyed. There is no way you can perform intense workouts without eating your carbs.

If your goal is to cut fat, you should be eating as much carbs as you can while not gaining fat.

Personally, I have a hard time cutting fat (my metabolism sucks), so I cut out the carbs completely during my non-workout days. Everybody is different though so experiment, monitor your carbs, and find what works for you.

(ostale mite najdete tukaj)

Kakšno pa je vaše mnenje o “pravilih” v športni prehrani in kako ločite zrno od plev?

Vse dobro in lepo,
S.
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