Jin in jang: mobilnost in stabilnost

Posted: 17/07/2011 in Poškodbe preventiva in rehabilitacija, Vadba
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Verjetno se vsakdo, ki se dalj časa ukvarja s takšno ali drugačno obliko premetavanja železja po telovadnici, zaveda izjemnega pomena, ki ga igrata mobilnost in stabilnost pri doseganju boljših športnih rezultatov in pri ohranjanju vsesplošnega zdravja (preprečevanje in sanacija poškodb). V članku The Mobility-Stability Continuum enega največjih strokovnjakov na področju mobilnosti in stabilnosti, Mika Robertsona, boste zvedeli nekaj več o komplementarni naravi omenjnih pojmov, o t.i. kontinuumu mobilnosti in stabilnosti in o tem, zakaj otrdelost (ang. stiffness) sama po sebi ni nujno slaba. Če strnemo:  različni sklepi v telesu potrebujejo različno stopnjo stabilnosti oz. mobilnosti – nekateri (denimo, koleno in komolec) za optimalno delovanje potrebujejo več prve, dočim drugi (denimo, gleženj in bok) potrebujejo več druge. Morda nekoliko presenetljiva je tudi ugotovitev, da je v nekaterih primerih za pravilno izvedbo giba pomemben določen nivo otrdelosti (kot oblika opore) v določenih telesnih delih. Za karseda uspešno, predvsem pa zdravo vadbo se je pomembno zavedati teh razlik in v skladu z njimi primerno strukturirati svoj vadbeni režim.

Nekaj ključnih točk:

Mobility and stability are complementary in nature. When you strive to improve mobility at a joint, to some degree you sacrifice stability. It works the opposite way as well; the more stable you make a joint, the more you inherently restrict its mobility.

Before we go any further, let’s get the semantics out of the way. Here are the Bill Hartman-approved, “simple” definitions:

  • Mobility — The ability to produce a desired movement.
  • Stability — The ability to resist an undesired movement.

Each joint serves a specific purpose — to produce a given movement. Mike Boyle took the concept to another level when he introduced his “joint-by-joint” approach to training. Here’s the Reader’s Digest recap: It appears as though each joint requires either more mobility training or more stability training.

Even more interesting is that it appears they alternate in fashion. A joint which needs more mobility is surrounded, above and below, by a joint that needs more stability, and the opposite is true.

The chart below depicts each joint’s primary need, according to the joint-by-joint approach:

Joint — Need

Foot — Stability
Ankle — Mobility
Knee — Stability
Hip — Mobility
Lumbar Spine — Stability
Thoracic Spine — Mobility
Scapula — Stability
Gleno-Humeral Joint — Mobility
Elbow — Stability

The mobility-stability continuum piggybacks upon the joint-by-joint approach, and hopefully takes it to the next level. It’s not necessarily “new,” but I hope it’ll enhance your understanding of what you already know.

Hopefully we are in agreement that all joints need some degree of mobility and some degree of stability. The key is to understand how much mobility/stability we need at each specific joint.

Stable Mobile
Knee Elbow Scapula Hip Shoulder

Unfortunately, understanding mobility and stability is only part of the equation. The concept of stiffness is one we’ve only recently begun to understand in depth. (…) Stiffness — Passive resistance to stretching.

Now I’m sure some of you are thinking something along the lines of, “No! Stiffness sucks! I don’t want any of that damn stiffness hibbity-jibbity stuff going on.” More than anything, I think it comes from a misunderstanding of the term “stiffness.”

People hear the term and they assume that it means being immobile, inflexible, or something along those lines. However, stiffness doesn’t have to be bad. If you watch any high-level athlete move, they know how to utilize stiffness to produce more powerful movement.

In the hips of an elite powerlifter; the stiffness generates starting and reactive strength for big squats and pulls. The posterior of an athlete with a big vertical jump uses stiffness in the gastroc, soleus, and Achilles to produce serious hang-time. It’s not so much the stiffness that causes the issue, but the imbalance in stiffness.

Mobilnost in stabilnost gresta z roko v roki: zelo pomembno je vedeti, kdaj, kje in koliko katere je potrebno za optimalno izvedbo neke dejavnosti. Še enkrat: telo ni le seštevek ločenih segmentov, temveč je ubrana celota (vse je povezano! :)). Posamični “deli” so le plod naših konceptualizacij, medtem ko v ozadju leži brezšivno spojena enota, v kateri je vse povezano z vsem: zato lahko npr. nepravilnosti v gibljivosti/stabilnosti gležnja povzročajo težave v kolenu, kolkih ali spodnjem hrbtu itd. Zelo pomembno je torej, da gojimo in razvijamo ta “celostni” vidik telesnosti ter si po najboljših močeh prizadevamo za karseda skladno delovanje vseh telesnih “delov”.

Tako kot na vseh področjih življenja tudi tukaj ne bo šlo brez “timskega dela”.

Lep dan vam želim, dragi bralci, preljube bralke. 🙂

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